2004/12/06

[国連改革]保護する責任

皆さんこんにちは

 ハイレベルパネル報告書について議論しましょう、と言い出した張本人ですので、問題提起させて頂きます。

 日本政府的には、安保理改革に焦点があたっている今回の報告書ですが、私が注目しているのは、武力行使はどのような場合認められるか、という部分です。報告書で言うとPart 3, Collective security and the use of forceの、IX. Using force:rules and guidelinesの部分です。この中で、保護する責任論(Responsibility to Protect)が展開されており、注目に値すると思います。保護する責任論はご承知の通り、2001年にInternational Commission on Intervention and State Sovereigntyが出した報告書の内容なのですが、それがようやく認められた、ということになるかと思います。無論その背景には、ICISSの委員長だったエバンス元豪州外相が今回ハイレベルパネルの委員だった、ということもあります。

 今回のハイレベルパネル報告書では、武力行使が認められる場合として、5条件あげており、Seriousness of threat, Proper purpose, Last resort, Proportional means, Balance of consequencesがあげられています。これもほとんど保護する責任の報告書で提言されていることと内容的に同一であると思います。保護する責任の報告書では、large scale loss of life, large scale 'ethnic cleansing'の場合に、Right intention, Last resort, Proportional means, Reasonable prospectsの条件の下で介入が認められる、としています。

 今後はこの問題は国連加盟各国が明年以降議論することになるわけですが、問題は、これは果たしてグローバルに受け入れられる考えなのでしょうか。途上国側、特に中南米においては、依然として介入に対する警戒感はあるでしょう。そもそも保護する責任の報告書が出て受け入れられるまでにこれだけ時間がかかったということは、それだけ抵抗感が強かったと言うことでもあると思います。一方、米国としては、武力行使にこれだけの条件を付けられて制約を加えられることに対しては否定的なのではないか、とも思えます。
 日本政府の対応は、今後国内で議論されていくことになるでしょう。法律的に見ても面白い問題であり、かつ政治的にも難しい問題であると思います。

外務省国際社会協力部政策課長 南  博

46 Comments:

At 1:57 PM, Blogger Team UN Forum said...

南さん、久木田さんほかフォーラムのみなさん。田瀬より。

おはようございます。こんばんは。

昨日は私も天皇誕生日レセプションに初めて「招かれる側」で出席させて頂きました。原口大使、代表部のみなさん、ご招待ありがとうございました。昨日は確かに安保理改革の話題が花咲いており、またこのフォーラムについても原口大使、北岡大使はじめ多くの方が少なくとも楽しんで読んでおられることが分かったので、今後とも盛り上げていければと思います。本日は先週末に外務省国社部政策課長の南さんが提起された「保護する責任」について、私はまだハイレベルパネルのExecutive Summaryしか読んでいませんが、この範囲で思ったことを書こうと思います。

まず、サマリーの該当部分を私訳ですが以下に訳してみます。

「報告書は、大規模な暴力から文民を保護するための規範として最近議論されている『保護する責任』との考え方を支持する。この規範は一義的には国家の責任である。しかし、国家がその国民を保護することができない場合、国際社会は人道活動や監視部隊の派遣あるいは外交的圧力などを通じて行動する責任を負う。そして、この責任は、あくまでも最終手段としてのみであるが、武力の行使を伴い得る。さらに、紛争や武力の行使が行われる場合には、破壊された社会を再建するための国際社会の明確な意図が示されるべきである。」

(なんとなく意訳部分もありますが意図はこんなところでしょう)

私の問題意識は、この議論での力点の置き場所です。2002年にヒューマン・セキュリティ・ネットワーク(以下HSN)の閣僚会合に参加した際には、カナダの当時の外務大臣は「主権と介入に関する国際委員会(ICISS)の作業は、人道的介入が必要な条件を絞っていく作業である」という表現をしていました。これらはまさに南さんが先の投稿で挙げられた点であり、話の前提およびプレゼンテーションとしては「介入しなければ多数の人々の生命が失われる状況は現実にあり得る」ということをまず認め、介入する場合の行動規範をあらかじめ決めておくことが「保護する責任」の中心だ、ということかと思います。そして少なくとも2年ほど前までは、カナダ関係者は「この部分が『人間の安全保障』の唯一の付加価値である」という風にも説明していました。

一方、最近のカナダ政府の説明やEUの研究グループの意見などでは、「介入が必要な状況を作らないように様々な措置を講じることが『保護する責任』の中心だ」という説明も聞かれるような気がします。これは、HSNでも「恐怖からの自由」と「欠乏からの自由」の両方が確保される必要があるという議論が、タイやチリ、マリなどから提起されてきたという事情にもよるものでしょう。重要なことは、上記のSummaryの段落にはこれら両方の概念が含まれておりきちんと一貫してはいるものの、両者のうちどこに力点を置くかで特に途上国の理解を得られるかどうかはまったく変わってくるという点です。後者に力点が置かれた場合、考え方は日本が推す「人間の安全保障」とほとんど同じです。前者に力点が置かれると、特に中南米諸国は過敏に反応する危険があります。

本日はこの辺にしますが、Executive Summaryでは「人道的介入:humanitarian intervention」という単語が使われておらず、「人道活動:humanitarian operation」とされているのも面白いところです。どなたかさらに分析して頂けますか?

あと、米国の反応にも非常に関心があります。南さんが言われたように、武力行使に条件を付けられることは米国として否定的なのではないでしょうか。あるいはやはり国連の活動と米国のunilateralismは切り離して考える、ということなのでしょうか。みなさんどう思われますか?

それではまた投稿いたします。
失礼します。

 
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